Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Some aspects of the biology of the black bean aphid Aphis … Source: Nigel Myers (Landmark Cummins), Adam Hancock (Elders Naracoorte). As already pointed out, no environmental stimulus, per se, can randomly, let alone adaptively, induce the expression of any gene or trigger any signal cascade. Key words: Aphis craccivora, virus vector, groundnut, groundnut rosette, plant resistance Introduction ... rainfall was recorded on the previous night and this appeared to have washed the insects from the plants. High rainfall is not favourable to A. craccivora populations since aphids do not survive periods of heavy rain. ), root rot (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. Further several studies have been made on its biology and predatory efficiency [5-7]. Early to mid-maturing, Santiago flowers 80 days following seeding. For Russian wheat aphid: The main risk period is approximately GS 20–40. Two main modes of AV1 spread in the field have been described. Cécile Desbiez, Hervé Lecoq, in Reference Module in Life Sciences, 2020. on Aloe striatula Have always assumed that the aphid found on Aloe striatula is Aphis fabae. No significant difference in the variety performance to AV1 infection has been observed (Bandte et al., 2008; Tomassoli et al., 2008b). The stimulus has no direct relevant effect on any cell or gene. D. cinereum originates from humid and dry environments between about 16 and 24° N at altitudes 0‒1,600 m asl in Central America. Regular monitoring for cereal aphids should start in late winter and continue through to early spring. Spread of the aphid occurs on the wing, and in air currents that can transport them over long distances. In the late 1980s when Bertaccini et al. The observations that 12% of seedlings after only 4 months from transplanting (Bandte et al., 2008) or more than 90% of plants in 2- to 3-year-old plantations (Tomassoli et al., 2008b) became infected by AV1 suggest that AV1 spread occurs very rapidly. Visually inspect at least 5 tillers in 6 areas of each paddock. Applied Entomology and Zoology, Vol. During this time, a suggested monitoring approach is to fortnightly mark out some locations, then (1) Count tillers over 50cm row, (2) Count tillers with symptoms (3) Take 20-30 tillers with symptoms and check for aphid presence, (4)Calculate % infested tillers. Kamphuis LG, Gao L and Singh KB. Severe tornadoes can stop swarms of aphids, while heavy rains can destroy colonies on young plants, where foliage is not plentiful enough to protect them (Mayeux, 1984). The cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, is one of the most serious pests of legumes, such as faba bean, cowpea and pea [3]. A. craccivora is shiny black with legs and antennae that are white to pale yellow with black tips. Of the 20 with symptoms, 10 have aphids. Impact Aphis craccivora is one of the most common aphids in the tropics. 49. For bluegreen aphid and cowpea aphid, on lupins, consider control when >30% of inflorescences infested with 30 or more aphids. 2012. A random distribution is the typical pattern for a nonpersistent transmission by aphids irrespective of the virus source being within or outside the planting (Evans et al., 1990; Howell and Mink, 1985; Knaflewski et al., 2008). Green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, also attacks canola, but is usually only problematic early in the season associated with transmission of viruses. Monitoring for canola aphids should begin in crop edges, which are typically infested first. In general, this pest causes severe damage to beans in warm weather, especially in medium-rainfall areas of the region. The cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora, and bluegreen aphid, Acyrthosiphon kondoi, inhabit the terminal flowering parts of plants. 48. They are usually found in clusters on bean stems or petioles, and occasionally on flowers and pods. Except where otherwise specified, all text and images on this page are copyright InfluentialPoints under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License on condition that a link is provided to InfluentialPoints.com. alfalfa aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, and their most abundant predators and parasitoids in three sites and in two subsequent years in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Aphids are a particularly important pest because they also spread the BCMV. ), leaf spot (Cercospora traversiana SOCC) and rust (Uromyces anthyllidis). 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