Thus, the GAO concluded that we cannot be certain that even meeting those funding targets would be adequate for today’s operating environment. Among adolescents ages 11 to 14, foreign residence was associated with being more likely to turn to their family as a means of coping along with lower levels of self-reliance/optimism, and among adolescents ages 15 to 18 it was associated with higher levels of self-reliance but more depressive symptoms (Lucier-Greer et al., 2016). New York, NY: Routledge. Military families’ geographic location can play a significant role in their satisfaction with military life, their ability to access military resources, and their ability to interact with other military families or their own family members. Moeller, J. D., Culler, E. D., Hamilton, M. D., Aronson, K. R., and Perkins, D. F. (2015). (2016) EFMP Quick Reference Guide. (2014). A matter of life and death: Military service and health. ), Handbook of Child Psychology (6th ed., vol. of the Department of Defense (DoD). GAO-19-438R. Below are four of the top challenges that our military kids face, some common difficulties kids experience as a reaction to those challenges, and some tips to help your children through them. Most young Americans do not meet military recruitment standards because of their weight, drug or alcohol abuse, physical or mental health conditions. Understanding military families who have dependents with special health care and/or educational needs. Added to this, pregnancies and new motherhood can involve new physical and emotional health challenges, such as problematic pregnancies, problems at birth, difficulties breastfeeding, managing post-pregnancy physical fitness and weight requirements, and suffering from post-partum depression (Appolinio and Fingerhut, 2008). There are also the daily and chronic stressors that can take a toll on individual or family well-being when they are experienced by particularly vulnerable populations or when they become cumulative, either through the same stressor chronically recurring or through multiple stressors occurring simultaneously. London, A. S., and Heflin, C. M. (2015). Due to the large numbers of reservists mobilized for long deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan, there were dramatic increases in the number of veterans receiving unemployment benefits, as more reservists were eligible for the benefits and long deployments made it more difficult to return to civilian employment (Loughran and Klerman, 2008). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://sapr.mil/public/docs/reports/FY16_Annual/FY16_SAPRO_Annual_Report.pdf. Afterword: What we can learn from military children and families. Thus, military service offers the potential for socioeconomic advancement through competitive wages, educational achievement, including a pathway to college, housing, and health benefits (Bennett and McDonald, 2013, p. 138). Transgender children and adolescents receiving care in the U.S. military health care system. Women make up one-half of the U.S. population but only 17.5 percent of the total force (DoD, 2017c, p. 6). Several scholars have concluded that the life-course impact of service for ethnic-minority families is “generally positive” and that service provides important opportunities to groups that might not have alternative pathways to socioeconomic independence and sustainability (Burland and Lundquist, 2013, p. 186). “I’m not sure I trust the system yet”: Lesbian service member experiences with mental health care. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Managing challenges or opportunities can be an iterative process, one that involves multiple engagements with resources and potentially strengthens or drains resilience factors. (2017a). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(11), 1009–1014. 2. Furthermore, it does not capture the complexity of the issues represented in the literature that a deeper dive on any one of these topics could provide. The military as a transforming influence: Integration into or isolation from normal adult roles. Remote areas also provide more limited access to specialists who can examine and treat those with particular medical needs. DoD is the provider of the nation’s largest employer-sponsored child care system, serving approximately 180,000 children ranging in age from birth to age 12 (DoD, 2016a). In E. Ritchie, J. Most (93 to 94%) reported working with military dependents with autism and dependents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, we reiterate here our call in Chapter 3 to be attentive to the ways intersectionality or overlapping statuses of numerous characteristics can shape how individual family members and families experience and interpret the events and features of military life. (Eds.). Military Medicine, 181(1), 80–85. Life in remote and isolated areas can present difficulties, however even for families who otherwise enjoy rural or small-town life. Washington, DC. On the other end of the spectrum, disciplinary action can be a risk to well-being. It encompasses autism, blindness, deafness, learning disabilities, speech disorders, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and many other physical, mental and psychological disabilities, and of course dependents can have more than one, and families can have more than one member who has special needs. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 425–452. Yeah, it is. This page will try to point out a few challenges you can expect to face during your time in the military. International Journal, 56, 73–88. New York, NY: Routledge. However, there is evidence suggesting that for some children, frequent relocations may promote resiliency and the development of coping behaviors, and PCS moves can become normative in some military families (Spencer et al., 2016). ________. Those unmarried partners of service members may also have experienced. Additionally, in the event of war, the military can issue a “stop loss” to prevent service members from leaving at the end of their contracts; or, if authorized by the Presidential Reserve Callup Authority, the military can call back to active-duty individuals who had already separated or retired but had not completed their period on “Individual Ready Reserve” status (e.g., as was done to provide ground forces for deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan). Military personnel are not ineligible for these programs. Personal communication of 2017 service member and spouse survey statistics to supplement statistics reported in 2016 Demographics: Profile of the Military Community. Although the term is often used to refer to romantic or sexual relationships, it can also refer to friendships, business partnerships, or other relationships that may indicate a supervisor or commander who is unable to be fair or impartial, who is using rank or position for personal gain or to take advantage of subordinates, or who would not have the ability to exert their authority properly. Conceptual model of military career and family life course events, intersections, and effects on well-being. McGraw, K. (2016). Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28(4), 298–306. However, they face frequent family separations, changes in pay and benefits eligibility associated with shifting military statuses, and disruptions to civilian employment and business ownership, and they may not even live near a military community that could provide formal or informal support. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. View our suggested citation for this chapter. U.S. Immigration Policy. Sexual Orientation and U.S. Military Personnel Policy: An Update of RAND’s 1993 Study. Postpartum depression in a military sample. LGBT Military Personnel: A Strategic Vision for Inclusion. reporting misconduct or criminal behavior within the community, or revealing anything that may be stigmatized in that particular community. Deployments can also help service members subsequently be competitive for promotion or choice assignments. Military Medicine, 178(7), 729–734. Not everyone. Many of these studies involved cross-sectional designs to examine associations between deployment and effects within families and were limited by the lack of longer-term outcomes. Military Family Life Project: Active Duty Spouse Study Longitudinal Analyses 2010-2012 Project Report. (2006). More recently, service members on active duty spent over $21 million in food stamp benefits at military commissaries from September 2014 through August 2015 (GAO, 2016). (2018a). Some veterans use their GI Bill benefits to attend college after they leave the service. and readiness outcomes. Military families, particularly those who choose to and are able to remain in the military, can be very adaptable and resilient and can develop healthy coping strategies for the stressors of military life such as moves and deployments (Easterbrooks et al., 2013; Meadows et al., 2016). Padavic, I., and Prokos, A. doi: 10.1111/famp.12282. Balderrama-Durbin, C., Erbes, C. R., Polusny, M. A., and Vogt, D. (2018). In my experience, most places do it, and the ones that don’t will usually change their policy on the spot if you ask. Recall that they work for their states (under Title 32), unless they are mobilized to work under the federal government (under Title 10), as they would be for an overseas military deployment. Suicidality among military-connected adolescents in California schools. An example is officers who are too informal with and too often socialize with their subordinates outside of official settings and then find they cannot command effectively in military operations. Huebner, A. J., Mancini, J. ), Life Course Perspectives on Military Service (pp. Military Medicine, 184 (5-6), e447-e454. Washington, DC. American Journal of Public Health, 100(8), 1409–1412. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2018(161), 7–15. Personnel, 2017). Barnes R., Stevelink, S. A. M., Dandeker C., and Fear N. T. (2016). Nevertheless, the use of SNAP among service members, while hard to measure exactly. Such deaths can be emotionally traumatic to the family and can lead to additional challenges, such as having to leave the military community (even having to move, if they live in military housing), and losing the military pay and benefits associated with service. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Studies of military children, caregivers, and schools have shown that deployments have a modest negative effect on performance. Psychological adjustment of Navy mothers experiencing deployment. – (Sec. We chose to spotlight the following seven issue areas, which the chapter addresses in turn, because of their prominence and implications for family well-being: These issue areas are all interrelated: we call them out separately to better highlight their contributions or roles as military opportunities or stressors. Children’s responses to the opportunities and strains of military family life are likely to depend on parental and family maturity and the individual child’s developmental stage, temperament, and social capacity. A., Petukhova, M. V., Reis, B. Y., Sampson, N. A. and Bliese, P. D. (2017). Turnover is highest among women (DACOWITS, 2017) and among the junior ranks, where DoD has invested heavily in training and support but has not yet seen the yield of those costs (GAO, 2017). U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Retrieved from https://dod.defense.gov/Portals/1/features/2016/0616_policy/memo-transgender-service-directive-28-July-2015.pdf. Asch, B. J., Miller, T., and Malchiodi, A. Washington, DC. Tick, S. L., Darnell, D. R. ( 2013 ) members on active duty status, as in! Lot ; birthdays, holidays, weddings, births, and Zamir, O ’ Neal C.. Pdf, if available room since 1999 clinical trial of cognitive processing therapy for veterans with PTSD related to EFMP. 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