The electrons in the CB reduce oxygen, which is adsorbed by the photocatalyst [22]. J. Nano Res. A stock solution was prepared in ddH2O, and vigorously vortexed (3 min) and subjected to high ultrasonication (30 min) prior to addition to culture mixture, and diluted to concentrations 1–4 mM. The bactericidal activity of ZnO-NPs (8–10 nm size) against E. coli DH5α and S. aureus was examined and found to be effective at 80 and 100 µg mL−1. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.047, B. Aydin Sevinç, L. Hanley, Antibacterial activity of dental composites containing zinc oxide nanoparticles. Song, Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. In the subsequent sections, we have discussed the factors affecting the antibacterial activity, including UV illumination, ZnO particle size, concentration, morphology, surface modifications by annealing, surface defects, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Part of Springer Nature. Tang, Comparative eco-toxicities of nano-ZnO particles under aquatic and aerosol exposure modes. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-29185-7_35, Z. The insolubility of ZnO impedes the distribution of zinc ions into the medium and thus limits this antimicrobial effect [118], unless ZnO capped or stabilized. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111289, W. Song, J. Zhang, J. Guo, J. Zhang, F. Ding, L. Li, Z. Metal NPs are known for their extremely ionic characteristics and are synthesized with different morphologies that exhibit remarkable crystallinity and highly surface area. 86(5), 521–522 (1998). B 1(4), 454–463 (2013). The method yielded structures of spherical surface that showed high antibacterial activity against the tested pathogens. This review reports the biological synthesis of metal oxide especially titanium dioxide (TiO 2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using bacterium, fungi, yeast, algae and plant extract. However, the influence of these parameters is not entirely elucidated. Yun, H.-S. Shin, Formation of ZnO micro-flowers prepared via solution process and their antibacterial activity. 22(11), 2376–2386 (2012). LEDs made using these ZnO nanoparticles emitted bright yellow light with efficacies reaching 64.2 lm/W. Other methods are different according to the investigated parameters. Ram, E.K. J. Nanomed. 843–854. Interestingly, ZnO-NPs are reported by several studies as non-toxic to human cells [14], this aspect necessitated their usage as antibacterial agents, noxious to microorganisms, and hold good biocompatibility to human cells [12]. Wong, P.T. Chem. 5(10), 1675–1681 (2010). Synaptic degeneration in rat brain after prolonged oral exposure to silver nanoparticles. Additionally, Brayner et al. ZnO-NPs concentrations that are 20–100 times were required for decreasing 1–2 logs of cells viability. Int. 2020 Nov 9;286:102317. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2020.102317. 9(7), 1181–1189 (2013), Y. Matsumura, K. Yoshikata, S.-I. C 113(36), 15997–16001 (2009). He, P.L. Song, T.A. doi:10.1364/BOE.2.003321, Y. Mishra, V. Chakravadhanula, V. Hrkac, S. Jebril, D. Agarwal, S. Mohapatra, D. Avasthi, L. Kienle, R. Adelung, Crystal growth behaviour in Au–ZnO nanocomposite under different annealing environments and photoswitchability. comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices. Nanotechnology 22(10), 105101 (2011). doi:10.1128/AEM.02149-10, L. Palanikumar, S.N. Phys. 2012, 1–22 (2012). Amro, L.P. Kotra, K. Wadu-Mesthrige, A. Bulychev, S. Mobashery, G.-Y. Sci. Notably, evidence has shown that zinc is an important nutrient in living organisms. 15(8), 847–851 (2004). According to this hypothesis, ZnO-NPs toxicity is referred to the solubility of Zn2+ in the medium including the bacteria. In this regard, investigation of sensitive ROS detection probes has been of utmost importance and was carried by some researcher. Biomaterials 32(7), 1906–1914 (2011). Toxicol. A number of significant breakthroughs have emerged in the areas of antimicrobial applications, as in the food industry. The documented antibacterial actions of ZnO-NPs have stimulated a considerable range of antimicrobial applications. have addressed the problem by adding dispersants polyethylene glycol (PEG; see Abbreviations) and PVP (10 % of the amount of ZnO-NPs) which enhanced the stability of ZnO and resulted in ZnO nanofluids, well suited for the antibacterial tests. Recently, Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been an active research area because of their fascinating physical, chemical properties and viability in optoelectronics, chemical sensing, biosensing, and photocatalysis but have weak optical features. A brief presentation of an experimental case study, carried by authors on antibacterial activity response to E. coli, was explored. Desalination 261(1), 3–18 (2010). The creation of ROS seems to be contradictory since a number of studies have revealed this mechanism under light exposure, as mentioned earlier. Nanoscale 5(9), 3834–3840 (2013). The efficiency of ZnO-NPs against Salmonella was also tested at lower concentration. Safa Kasap (Springer, 2007), pp. Lett. Also, images of the NPs interacted with the packaging materials can be obtained by SEM and TEM. The functions of this organelle include growth, metabolism, and replication. An important clarification studied by Padmavathy and Vijayaraghavan [12], who used ZnO-NPs of three different sizes (45, 12 nm, and 2 µm, namely sample 1, sample 2, and bulk) to determine ZnO bactericidal efficiency (Fig. Microbiol. Particles synthesized with their process exhibited strong luminescence with quantum yields as high as 42%. Lee, Is the effect of surface modifying molecules on antibacterial activity universal for a given material? 120, 66–73 (2013). Modifying ZnO-NPs surface area would establish the release of Zn2+ ions and enhance ROS production. World Health Organ 77(8), 651–666 (1999), Y.G. Numerous studies have considered ROS generation as the major cause of nanotoxicity [7, 56, 105–107]. This review aims to consider whether the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles found in numerous test models is a real threat to humans and plants. Wahab et al. While Stanković et al. 2 Meanwhile, Padmavathy et al. This result confirms the potent antibacterial effect of ZnO-NPs toward this particular bacterial species at much reduced concentrations, and this finding is highly beneficial in food packaging. This distinct property allows their possible applications in many fields such as biosensors, nanomedicine, and bionanotechnology [4]. ZnO exhibits significant antimicrobial activities when particle size is reduced to the nanometer range, then nano-sized ZnO can interact with bacterial surface and/or with the bacterial core where it enters inside the cell, and subsequently exhibits distinct bactericidal mechanisms [10]. The photocatalytic generation of ROS has been a major contributor to the antibacterial activities of various metal oxides [108]. ZnO and TiO 2 are used in sunscreens as nanoparticles, which denotes a size <100 nm. Phys. Nel, Comparison of the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles based on dissolution and oxidative stress properties. Leung, A.P. They explained the capability of ZnO-NPs to reduce the bacteria growth. Contam. Food Addit. In recent years, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) emerged as an excellent candidate in the field of optical, electrical, food packaging and particularly in biomedical research. Our results were in consistence with Raghupathi et al. Therefore, further studies are required to explain these findings deeply. 3(1), 95–101 (2007). NPs penetrate through holes, pits or protrusions in the cell wall. g Growth curves through optical density (OD600 nm) measurements. Mamat et al. Naqvi, N. Badshah, Sn doping induced enhancement in the activity of ZnO nanostructures against antibiotic resistant S. aureus bacteria. Sci. Moraes, Reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial diseases. Int. by A. Méndez-Vilas (Formatex, Badajoz, 2011), pp. The inhibition accounts for variations in cell physiology, cell wall constitution, and the metabolism [93, 94]. Nanoparticle zinc oxide, ZnO, is a form of zinc oxide where the compound is formed into individual particles as small as 20 nanometers in diameter. The effect of the pH value of the reaction medium in the antibacterial activity mechanism has been considered. [62] who referred some of the effect to a direct contact between NPs and the bacteria besides ROS generation nearby bacteria membrane. As a result, positive holes (h+) are formed in the VB, while free electrons are created within the CB [69–71]. [121] described the contribution of Zn2+ to the antimicrobial efficacy of ZnO-NPs as minor due to the low concentrations of solubilized Zn species released from ZnO dissolution. 279(1), 71–76 (2008). Mater. Additionally, INT assay (a tetrazolium reduction assay) was performed using P-iodonitrotetrazolium violet INT to determine lack of metabolic activity and reveal the growth inhibition. Adams, D.Y. Yamamoto [51] found that the higher concentration and the larger surface area can obtain the better antibacterial activity. Neurotoxicology 46: 145–154. Bacterial infectious diseases are serious health problem that has drawn the public attention in worldwide as a human health threat, which extends to economic and social complications. Microbiol. Different methods have been adopted for the assessment and investigation of antibacterial activity in vitro. This technology is capable of providing miscellaneous novel applications that range from innovative fabric compounds, food processing, and agricultural production to sophisticated medicinal techniques . The packaging materials are firstly characterized before incorporating with ZnO-NPs by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. c A goal of this review is to set a well-built reference for scientists interested in antibacterial activities along with their functional applications by considering nanotechnology principles as it relates to the nanobiological toxicity of ZnO-NPs. Thus, developing novel antibacterial agents against bacteria strains, mostly major food pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H, Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella types, and Clostridium perfringens, has become utmost demand. On the other hand, the antibacterial activity depends on the concentration and the crystalline structure of ZnO. More emphasis should be given to the correlation between ZnO-NPs structural, optical, electrical, chemical properties, and their bacterial toxicity. J. Ferment. Although the detailed mechanism of ZnO antibacterial activity is under discussion, a three most widely accepted, and reported hypothetical mechanisms in the literature [128] are: (i) metal ions uptake (translocation and particle internalization) into cells followed by depletion of intracellular ATP production and disruption of DNA replication [130], (ii) ROS generation from NPs metal oxides and ions with subsequent oxidative damage to cellular structures [131], and (iii) changes in bacterial membrane permeability (progressive release of lipopolysaccharides, membrane proteins, and intracellular factors) and dissipation of the proton motive force as a result of accumulation and dissolution of NPs in the membrane [132]. ZnO-NPs possess unique properties and excellent stability with long life compared with organic-based disinfectants that stimulated its use as antibacterial agent. Ahvenainen [143] stated that active packaging satisfies the consumer demand as it enhances safety, with more natural products of extended life time. Other benefits also are achieved such as the barrier properties, constancy, and mechanical capability [71]. Song, Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? doi:10.1021/nl052326h, N. Jones, B. Ray, K.T. 14(10), 4172–4177 (2002). However, ZnO exhibits considerable activity against bacteria under different test conditions [8, 56, 73] and fungi [61]. B Antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs towards: Enteritidis and E. coli O157:H7, adapted from Xie et al. Murphy, R.F. The inclusion of antibacterial agents assists either bacteriostatic or bactericidal materials to gradually diffuse into the food matrix. ZnONPs show cancer cell specific toxicity via the pH-dependent (low pH) dissolution into Zn2+ ions, which generate reactive oxygen species and induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells. A fluorescent dye dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) has been used recently to detect the intracellular ROS levels in bacteria and cancer cell lines [109, 110]. Van de Walle, Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor. Mater. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) that have diameters less than 100 nanometers. The inhibition rate varies with the tested organisms and the utilized NP-oxide [55]. These results contradicted those obtained for ZnO and Al2O3 NPs, which exhibited significant growth inhibition. Nanotechnology is a research hot spot in modern materials science. [13]. doi:10.1021/jp904864g, J. Díaz-Visurraga, C. Gutiérrez, C. Von Plessing, A. García, in Science and Technology Against Microbial Pathogens Communicating Current Research and Technological Advances: Metal Nanostructures as Antibacterial Agents, ed. [87] observed the morphology-dependent release of Zn2+ ions on spherical structures that had the highest increase in the release of Zn2+ ions than rod structures. by D.E. J. Biomed. [13], whose results also revealed high antibacterial activity upon UV illumination. Leitner, F.G. Zingl, G. Schratter, R. Prassl, W. Goessler, J. Reidl, S. Schild, Antibacterial activity of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxic Escherichia coli. Nanostructures from large micro-particles in a tube containing approximately 5 × 105 CFU.! Concern in regards to their unique properties and the mechanisms and phenomenon behind nanostructured materials inhibition and mechanism of and! Doi:10.1016/J.Tsf.2007.11.081 zinc oxide nanoparticles review R. Sureshkumar, Y.J, S.-I Fiévet, toxicological impact studies based on oxide... Nanoparticles with superior specific surface area and porosity volume ZnO-NPs covering techniques of doping and implanting foreign metals on nanostructures! Basic and applied sciences as well, completed an investigation on how the different conditions, including the of! Particle size, surface chemistry, defects, and the larger surface area would establish the release of Zn2+ and... Spoilage plus it maintains colors, M.-A, electrical, structural, optical, electrical, the... Exist in the nanometer region ( 1–100 nm ) Chaudhry, L. Schmidt-Mende, J.L to those obtained ZnO... Considerable activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, 17600–17601 ( 2005.. [ 116 ] nucleic acids, salts, ions, and optical properties of cell wall ( nm... Relies on the toxicities of Nano zinc oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization of ZnO-NPs in food packaging and packaging. 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